Canine Epilepsy- chronic recurrent seizures in German Shepherds

ONE THING THAT IS NOT MENTIONED IN THIS ARTICLE, MY VET HAS TREATED A NUMBER OF HUNTING DOGS WHO AFTER A DAY OF HUNTING OR RUNNING IN THE FIELD SUFFERED SEIZURES. SO OVER HEATING AND STRESS CAN TRIGGER SEIZURES TO.

ONE THING I HAVE NOTICED FROME PEOPLE THAT HAVE DOGS WITH SEIZURE IS MOST ARE NUETERED MALES OFTEN STRATING WITH IN 6 MONTHS AFTER NUETERING SO I FOUND SOME HUMAN STUDIES SURE ENOUGH SEIZURE RELATED TO LOW TESTSTRONE LEVELS!

How to Get Help for Dogs with Canine Epilepsy
Canine epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent seizures. Watching a beloved pet in the throes of a grand mal seizure is one of the most terrifying scenes a dog owner can witness.

The term "seizure" refers to the involuntary contraction of muscles which is caused by an electrical storm in the brain. Although seizures can always be considered as abnormal events, not all seizures in dogs are caused by canine epilepsy.

There are so many different causes of chronic recurrent seizures in German Shepherds that canine epilepsy is not even considered a specific disease or even a single syndrome, but rather a broad and diverse category of disorders.

Canine epilepsy in dogs can be caused by a variety of causes. Other major causes of seizures can be the result of: brain tumors; liver disease; low blood sugar; severe worm infestation; hypothyroidism; vaccinations; hydrocephalus; genetic factors; infections, cysts and cancer; eclampsia; lead, chemicals and poisoning.

Other causes of seizures and epilepsy in dogs can be: head trauma; kidney failure; and vitamin deficiencies.

Epilepsy in dogs is broadly divided into 2 distinct and different types - idiopathic and symptomatic. Idiopathic epilepsy (also called primary epilepsy) is diagnosed when there is no known cause for the condition. It is generally accepted in veterinary medicine that idiopathic epilepsy is partially hereditary, because some breeds and lines seem to have a higher incidence rate.

The second type is called Symptomatic epilepsy (also called secondary epilepsy). This diagnosis is used when a specific cause for the seizures can be found.

There are two basic forms of epileptic seizures in German Shepherds - "Petit mal" or "partial motor seizures" (a less severe form of epilepsy) and "Grand mal". These major motor seizures are much more severe and can include a loss of consciousness and gross body movements.

A canine epileptic seizure in itself can be further broken down into four different stages.

1. The Prodome –This stage is typically characterized by changes in the dog’s mood or behavior and can last from minutes to hours or longer before the manifestation of the actual seizure activity. Many dogs become 'clingy' during this stage and try to stay close to their owners.

2. The Aura – When the owner first notices the initial signs including: pacing, licking, salivating, trembling, vomiting, wandering aimlessly, hiding, whining, etc.

3. The Ictus- This stage includes the actual seizure itself. It is a period of activity in which the dog may lose consciousness, gnash their teeth, thrash about with their head and legs, drool excessively, paddle their feet as if running as well as losing control of their bladders and bowels. In most dogs, a grand mal seizure should last less than two minutes. A dog who is having a series of seizures, such as 2 or 3 seizures within an hour or two, is said to be having 'cluster seizures' and should be taken immediately to a veterinary clinic, no matter what time of the day or night it is.

4. The Post-Ictal Stage– This stage occurs immediately after the seizure. The dog may act drunk, doped, blind or deaf. Some will seem to pass out and just sleep. Other dogs will show signs of pacing endlessly or drinking large amounts of water. In MOST dogs, this stage lasts for 10-30 minutes, but may last longer in some dogs.

Canine epilepsy can be heartbreaking for dog lovers. If your dog experiences seizures, it could be your pet has canine epilepsy. While inarguably debilitating, fortunately there are a few things you can do to improve the situation. It is also important to realise that dogs do not seem to be suffering 'pain' during their seizures - nor do people who have epilepsy report any pain. The dogs are mentally just 'somewhere else' for a few minutes.

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[edit]Steps
Talk to your vet about the problem. Be sure to keep a diary with a detailed account of the symptoms your pet has experienced. Date, time, and duration of the seizure, as well as any unusual circumstances are important pieces of information.
Contact other dog lovers who have experienced the same problem. One website that attempts to match and educate dog lovers with experience in canine epilepsy is Canine Epilepsy Guardian Angels.
There are a range of medications available that may help your dog cope with the effects of canine epilepsy, including: Diazepam, Phenobarbital, and Potassium Bromide. These medications are only available by prescription. You should consult your veterinarian as to their suitability for your case.
Some also believe diet can have an impact on your dog's well being. But while a ketogenic (Atkins-like) diet can be helpful in treating people with epilepsy, its effectiveness in canines is less accepted.

[edit]Tips
Primidone and Dilantin are human medications which are not particularly effective in dogs. Valium (Diazepam) rectal suppositories are sometimes prescribed for owners of known epileptics to keep for emergency use, but Valium is not effective as a long-term medication in dogs.
Many dog owners also use other alternative methods of treating seizure disorders and canine epilepsy such as: homemade diets, eliminating toxins in the house, exercise, and supplements.
As with any other medication, once beginning seizure medications for canine epilepsy never discontinue anti-epileptic medications without consulting your veterinarian first! Just because a dog is diagnosed with epilepsy doesn’t mean he or she can’t live a long, happy life. In most instances dogs that are kept on medications can lead pretty normal lives with few restrictions or changes in routine.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++HUMANS- LOTS MORE SNIPIDS ON THE NET ON HOW,TESTRONE IS USED TO REDUCE SEIZURE JUST ANOTHER REASON NOT TO NUETER

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)
(1) Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, ETATS-UNIS
Résumé / Abstract
Testosterone modulates seizure susceptibility in animals and humans, but the underlying mechanisms are obscure. Here, testosterone modulation of seizure susceptibility is hypothesized to occur through its conversion to neurosteroids with anticonvulsant and proconvulsant actions, and hence the net effect of testosterone on neural excitability and seizure activity depends on the levels of distinct testosterone metabolites. Testosterone undergoes metabolism to neurosteroids via two distinct pathways. Aromatization of the A-ring converts testosterone into 17β-estradiol. Reduction of testosterone by 5α-reductase generates 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is then converted to 3a-androstanediol (3a-Diol), a powerful GABAA receptor-modulating neurosteroid with anticonvulsant properties. Systemic doses of testosterone decreased seizure threshold in rats and increased the incidence and severity of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. These proconvulsant effects of testosterone were associated with increases in plasma 17β-estradiol and 3a-Diol concentrations. Pretreatment with letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor that blocks the conversion of testosterone to 17β-estradiol, significantly inhibited testosterone-induced exacerbation of seizures. The 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride significantly reduced 3α-Diol levels and also blocked letrozole's ability to inhibit the proconvulsant effects of testosterone. The 5α-reduced metabolites of testosterone, DHT and 3α-Diol, had powerful anticonvulsant activity in the PTZ test. Letrozole or finasteride had no effect on seizure protection by DHT and 3a-Diol, but indomethacin partially reversed DHT actions. 3a-Diol but not 3β-androstanediol, a GABAA receptor-inactive stereoisomer suppressed 4-aminopyridine-induced spontaneous epilepti form bursting in rat hippocampal slices. Thus, testosterone derived neurosteroids 3a-Diol and 17β-estradiol could con tribute to the net cellular actions of testosterone on neura excitability and seizure susceptibility.